Foundations Types

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Isolated foundations

Are a type of surface foundation that serves as the basis for specific structural elements such as pillars; so that this shoe extends the support surface until the floor is able to support the load it transmits without problems.

The insulated shoes are braced with reinforced concrete braces of lower section than the shoe.

They can be made of concrete in mass, that is to say without arming, if they have a considerable edge (they are the so-called solid shoes).

 

Continuous Foundations

The continuous foundation is a braced foundation that will serve as a foundation generally to a reinforced concrete wall. The structural element that will transmit the efforts to the foundation will therefore be a wall. The wall will transmit a linear load to the shoe. This solution is very suitable for both residential and industrial buildings with basements that require retaining walls.

The scope of application will be for running shoes of concrete in mass or armed, as a foundation of vertical walls of load, enclosure, centered or medianería, belonging to the building structures.

Foundation slab

Concrete plate supported on the ground that serves as a foundation that distributes the weight and loads of the building on the entire support surface. It also consists of supporting the entire building on a reinforced concrete slab, extended to a surface such that taking the total load transmitted by the building and dividing it by it, does not request the floor under an effort greater than that of its admissible bearing capacity.

The foundation is the structural part of the building, responsible for transmitting the loads to the ground, which is the only element that we cannot choose, so the foundation will be made based on it. At the same time this is not all at the same depth so that will be another reason that influences us in the decision of choosing the right foundation.

The foundation well

Is a type of semi-deep foundation, used in soft soils, where surface foundations are not suitable. The caissons have great similarity with the piles, the difference is that the caissons are larger in diameter and are almost always built in situ. The particularity of the foundation pit is that it is being built as it is sinking into the ground.

This type of foundation is often required to support horizontal or inclined loads in addition to vertical load, in high speed and deep water currents, as in the case of bridge piers on rivers that have to withstand a lateral load due to wind the superstructure, the traction of the vehicles that use the bridge, the currents in the river and sometimes floating debris or ice.

The piles

Are constructive elements of punctual type used for deep foundations in construction sites, which allow to transmit the loads of the structure to deeper layers of soil that have the capacity of sufficient load to support them.

The piles transmit to the terrain the loads they receive from the structure by means of a combination of lateral friction or stem resistance and resistance to penetration or tip resistance.

They can be constructed with ordinary reinforced concrete, with pre-stressed concrete similar to light poles, with metal sections or with wood.

The piles are driven vertically on the surface of the land by means of blows, using for that a pile driver, or a metal shovel equipped, machines to blow masses or with a pneumatic hammer. This allows the pile to descend, penetrating the ground, until the depth of resistant soil layers is reached and the “rejection” of the soil occurs in case of being a pile that works by “tip”, or of reaching the depth of design, in case of being a pile that works by “friction”.

Once driven into the ground, it exerts on the pile and on all its lateral surface, a strength of adhesion that increases when continuing to drive more piles in the vicinity, being able to achieve by this procedure, a consolidation of the land.

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