After conceiving a construction project based on a need or based on the opportunity to offer something new, or also to create a need, we enter in the design phase. In this phase, architectural design is carried out first, taking into account a number of things that belong more to architecture than to civil engineering; this part we will abound later so that a professional of the architecture offers us greater and better details. After having at hand the architectural design, we proceed to the designs of the construction, which would be: the structural design, which is what allows us to build taking into account the loads that interfere in the
element, such as dead loads ( the own weight, furniture and / or machinery that would be fixed in the structure), the live loads, which are the loads of people and vehicles that would transit inside and / or on the structure, the loads offered by the wind, that is, the force that the wind would exert on the structure and seismic or seismic loads during a possible earthquake.
In this design phase, the part of water is also worked with the wastewater discharged, as well as the electrical part. All these designs will be detailed with the collaboration of professionals from each area.
After having all these designs, we proceed to make the work budget, which consists in making an estimated cost of all the capital necessary to execute and make real the construction project we are working on. These costs are the direct and indirect costs. The direct costs are those that result from the costs of the materials, purchase and / or rental of equipment and labor. Indirect costs
are those that result from the sum of administrative expenses such as official taxes, technical management and responsibility, transportation, health insurance for workers, design approval management, design management, among others.
After the budget, we prepared the schedule of activities, which generally consists of making the order of activities, taking into account those we can do simultaneously with the resources that we could assign in the work schedules to perform the work. For this, tools such as the Gantt diagram and the critical path method are used, there being many more methods for this. Starting from the chronogram, a flow chart is established, which consists of having the amount of economic resources to be used and for periods.
After having carried out all these steps we have the completed construction project, and after having the necessary permits from the relevant authorities, we have everything necessary to bring to reality all that was originally an idea. Here begin the different stages that make up the constructive part. From here and in the next posts we will describe in broad strokes the stages of a commercial and / or residential building.