Electrical installations consist as the connection system that has the mission to conduct and distribute the electric current, from the electric service to the last electrical installation outlet, in a edification or construction.
The importance of the use of electrical energy is given because thanks to it there is lighting; the food is preserved; it cools the temperature or rises, as it is in the case of cold countries; you get entertainment, from the use of television or radio, etc.
To obtain these results, it is necessary that there is a source of energy supply, that there are systems of facilities that allow the use of energy according to the needs and that the indicated systems are designed taking into account the safety, capacity, flexibility and accessibility standards. , etc.
To design an electrical installation in a building, it must take into account all the general electrical requirements, such as: type of building, that is, if it is a house, a school, an industry, a hospital, etc. each of them will have different requirements; the capacity of the building, number of floors, possible extensions, loads, and possible electrical equipment that will work in them. In addition, if the power will be served by a public service plant or a private generator.
The conductors that carry the energy from the source of supply to the building, make up what is called electrical connection, these connections can be aerial or underground.
Aerial: when the cable of the connection leaves the power line to the general disconnector inside the building.
Underground: the power supply of the building is made from cables that go through buried conduits. In these cases the public service can be buried, although in most cases, the service is by air and the underground service.
Internal distribution of electricity
From the connection to the circuit distribution panel.
From the general disconnector, meter meters are fed, which also have their disconnects that open or close the circuits of each of the building’s dependencies. In these disconnects the fuses are installed, which have the function of protecting the circuits from possible overloads. From here, the power goes out into the different rooms or goes to a control panel of the different circuits.
They have the function of distributing the energy by conveniently distributing the charges; they control the lighting and power sections, and protect the installation conformed by the different circuits. The circuits start from a panel that is fed by the meter meter and go to the different electrical outputs, which can be: lamps, receptacles, etc. Each circuit has its own protection fuse. The distribution panels consist of at least two circuits, and can have up to fourteen.
Types of facilities
According to the way in which the drivers are placed in the construction, the installations can be discovered and hidden.
They are used mainly in industrial facilities. In this case the pipes and boxes are fixed on the outside of the walls.
Hidden Electrical installations
They are the most used. Here the installation is hidden inside the roofs and walls. In slabs of molten roofs, after formworking and fixing, the boxes and ducts are placed firmly fixed so that when the concrete mixture is poured, they do not move. When are walls, generally after these raised slots are practiced where boxes and tubes are fixed that later will be covered with mortar. In both cases, the wires are placed after placing all the ducts and boxes, finally placing the switches, receptacle and covers.
As you might think, within the group of plans that make up an architectural project, are the plans of electrical installations, which reflect the preliminary study on the lighting and power take-off needs of each building, each element of the installation being represented by a specific conventional symbol.